When combined with the Earth–Moon system's common orbit around the Sun, the period of the synodic month, from new moon to new moon, is 29.53 days. See: Due to natural fluctuations, ambiguities surrounding, The ultimate source of these figures, uses the term "seconds of UT1" instead of "seconds of mean solar time".—. )", "Third rock from the Sun – restless Earth", "Fundamentals of Physical Geography (2nd Edition)", "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58°C Temperature Extreme at El Azizia, Libya (13 September 1922)", "Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica", "Stratosphere and Weather; Discovery of the Stratosphere", "Presentation of the Karman separation line, used as the boundary separating Aeronautics and Astronautics", "The Aeronomy of Hydrogen in the Atmosphere of the Earth", 10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<1118:TAOHIT>2.0.CO;2, "Interdependency between animal and plant species", "On the Generality of the Latitudinal Gradient", "Number of species on Earth tagged at 8.7 million", "Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming", "Various '7 billionth' babies celebrated worldwide", "World population in 2100 could be 2 billion below UN forecasts, study suggests", "What share of people will live in urban areas in the future? saeclum noun. The final major mode of heat loss is through conduction through the lithosphere, the majority of which occurs under the oceans because the crust there is much thinner than that of the continents. "Earth's atmosphere") but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the (e.g. [188] Sea water has an important influence on the world's climate, with the oceans acting as a large heat reservoir. This causes secular variation of the main field and field reversals at irregular intervals averaging a few times every million years. [126] Common carbonate minerals include calcite (found in limestone) and dolomite. As a result, the mean annual air temperature at sea level decreases by about 0.4 °C (0.7 °F) per degree of latitude from the equator. Models predict that the Sun will expand to roughly 1 AU (150 million km; 93 million mi), about 250 times its present radius. [104] Earth's inner core may be rotating at a slightly higher angular velocity than the remainder of the planet, advancing by 0.1–0.5° per year, although both somewhat higher and much lower rates have also been proposed. In geodesy, the exact shape that Earth's oceans would adopt in the absence of land and perturbations such as tides and winds is called the geoid. Objects must orbit Earth within this radius, or they can become unbound by the gravitational perturbation of the Sun. [194] Each layer has a different lapse rate, defining the rate of change in temperature with height. The fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates, with the Cocos Plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/a (3.0 in/year)[120] and the Pacific Plate moving 52–69 mm/a (2.0–2.7 in/year). [251] Of the 12–14% of ice-free land that is used for croplands, 2 percent point was irrigated in 2015. Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved 2.7 Gya, forming the primarily nitrogen–oxygen atmosphere of today. [5][152], The Hill sphere, or the sphere of gravitational influence, of Earth is about 1.5 million km (930,000 mi) in radius. ", "What Did Plato Think the Earth Looked Like? Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of anaerobic and, later, aerobic organisms. This effect is much less significant than the total energy change due to the axial tilt, and most of the excess energy is absorbed by the higher proportion of water in the Southern Hemisphere. More precisely, the geoid is the surface of gravitational equipotential at mean sea level. In many cultures it is a mother goddess that is also the primary fertility deity. [70][71] Following the Cambrian explosion, 535 Ma, there have been at least five major mass extinctions and many minor ones. [108] Because much of the heat is provided by radioactive decay, scientists postulate that early in Earth's history, before isotopes with short half-lives were depleted, Earth's heat production was much higher. [82] Due to the increased luminosity, Earth's mean tempearture may reach 100 °C (212 °F) in 1.5 billion years, and all ocean water will evaporate and be lost to space within an estimated 1.6 to 3 billion years. [255] Creation myths in many religions involve the creation of Earth by a supernatural deity or deities. Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → UniverseEach arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of". Due to mass segregation, the core region is estimated to be primarily composed of iron (88.8%), with smaller amounts of nickel (5.8%), sulphur (4.5%), and less than 1% trace elements. 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