A marginal emission factor is the best representation to estimate which fossil-fired units EE/RE are displacing across the fossil fleet. Pervasive Computing, pp.19-33. The Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2017 uses default IPCC (2014) factors for drained organic soil on forestland and U.S.-specific factors for cropland. hectares × 103) = -0.52 metric tons of carbon sequestered per hectare per year*. Organic soils also emit CO2 when drained. Carbon dioxide emissions were then divided by the ratio of carbon dioxide emissions to total vehicle greenhouse gas emissions to account for vehicle methane and nitrous oxide emissions. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Carbon dioxide emissions per barrel of crude oil are determined by multiplying heat content times the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, Switzerland. The average heat content of coal consumed by the electric power sector in the U.S. in 2017 was 20.92 mmbtu per metric ton (EIA 2019). Annual energy savings from replacing an incandescent light bulb with an equivalent LED bulb are calculated by multiplying the 34-watt difference in power between the two bulbs (43 watts minus 9 watts) by 3 hours per day and by 365 days per year. Carbon dioxide emissions per pound of propane were determined by multiplying the weight of propane in a cylinder times the carbon content percentage times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). (2020, November 2). Most users of the Equivalencies Calculator who seek equivalencies for electricity-related emissions want to know equivalencies for emissions reductions from energy efficiency (EE) or renewable energy (RE) programs. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e or CO 2 eq or CO 2-e) is calculated from GWP. Forest carbon stocks and carbon stock change are based on the stock difference methodology and algorithms described by Smith, Heath, and Nichols (2010). 0.1 mmbtu equals one therm (EIA 2018). *Negative values indicate carbon sequestration. This method estimates only direct sequestration of carbon, and does not include the energy savings that result from buildings being shaded by urban tree cover. In the preamble to the joint EPA/Department of Transportation rulemaking on May 7, 2010 that established the initial National Program fuel economy standards for model years 2012-2016, the agencies stated that they had agreed to use a common conversion factor of 10,180 grams of CO2 emissions per gallon of diesel consumed (Federal Register 2010). "We showed for the first time that this carbon dioxide reaction, which otherwise will only happen at 700 degrees C or higher, can be triggered using LSPs at room temperature," said researcher Canhui Wang of NIST and the University of Maryland. These emission factors were developed following a life-cycle assessment methodology using estimation techniques developed for national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions. Materials provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ferreira, D., Dey, A. K., & Kostakos, V. (2011). Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. This page describes the calculations used to convert greenhouse gas emission numbers into different types of equivalent units. Growing forests accumulate and store carbon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1,558.8 lbs CO2/MWh × (4.536 × 10-4 metric tons/lb) × 0.001 MWh/kWh = 7.07 × 10-4 metric tons CO2/kWh A narrow beam, about a nanometer in diameter, bombarded individual aluminum nanoparticles while a beam about a thousand times wider generated LSPs among a large set of the nanoparticles. We display the opportunities and challenges o Recent Review Articles This method is best used as an estimation for suburban/urban areas (i.e., parks, along sidewalks, yards) with highly dispersed tree plantings and is not appropriate for reforestation projects. Carbon dioxide emissions per therm are determined by converting million British thermal units (mmbtu) to therms, then multiplying the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to carbon (44/12). Carbon Dioxide Quantity Conversions Calculator , This Calculator will help you to convert Carbon Dioxide Quantity from different unit ( Pounds , Kg, Cubic Feet ( SCF ) , CU Meter (nm3), gallons, liters) Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. McPherson, E. G.; van D. N. S.; Peper, P. J. Carbon dioxide has evolved from being considered as a greenhouse gas to a valuable carbon feedstock for the generation of artificial fuels and valuable chemicals. The calculation takes into account “survival factors” developed by U.S. DOE (1998). It was assumed that the electricity generated from an installed wind turbine would replace marginal sources of grid electricity. Natural Gas Conversions – Frequently Asked Questions, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2017. Diode ( LED ) bulb produces the same light output as a 43 watt incandescent light bulb carbon to carbon dioxide conversion miles! 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